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Download file to see previous pages This movement propels the cell perpendicular to the orientation of the cilia. In contrast, the longer flagellum, usually one or two, moves in an undulating manner, moving successive waves from the base to the tip in the process. As such, it propels the cell to move parallel to the flagellum’s orientation. On the other hand, microvilli are non-motile appendage with no internal structure supporting it (Reece, et al., 2011). The loss of activity of cilia, resulting to loss of cellular motility, is termed ciliate narcosis. This can be induced by different living conditions and substances to which it is exposed to, such as low temperature (Jackson, Goggin and Lucas, 2012), calcium (Nakanaka, Tanaka and Oosawa, 1984), magnesium and protein (Adshead, et al., 1975) concentrations, as well as the presence of certain substances, such as theophylline, bromhexine, ambroxol, terpin hydrate, mercaptoethanesulfonat-sodium, amrinon, salbutamol, tetracosactid-hexaacetate, histamine, phenol and nitric oxide (Graf, Graf and Wenz, 1999). In addition, a study using tracheal cells in vitro, showed that ciliary beat frequency was increased at low ethanol concentrations (0. 01 to 0. 1%), unchanged at (0. 5 to 1%), and decreased above 2% (Maurer and Liebman, 1988). Moreover, even if it does not penetrate the cellular membrane, the presence of glycerol in the culture can make cellular surroundings viscous, making it more difficult for cilia to move (Negus, 1949). Alcohols are amphiphatic molecules primarily composed of alkane (CH3) and hydroxyl (OH) moieties, such that the simplest alcohol is methane (CH3OH). When the hydrocarbon portion becomes longer, as in the case of ethanol (2 Cs), propranol (3 Cs) and butanol (4 Cs), the alcohol becomes effectively more hydrophobic. A compound similar to alcohols, propranolol in particular, is glycerol, which has hydroxyl group attached to each of the three carbon atoms (Masterton and Hurley, 2008). One of the well-studied organisms known to extensively use cilia for movement is the free-living Tetrahymena pyriformis, which belongs to the order Holotrichia, literally meaning cilia all over its membrane. The microorganism is a common fixture in human toxicity studies, because of its cilia’s similarity in terms of morphology and function to that of human epithelial cells (Graf, Graf and Wenz, 1999). Its cell membrane has the characteristic sandwich-like phospholipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic head facing the cytoplasm or the external surroundings, and the hydrophobic chain filling the middle. Given this structure, hydrophilic molecules can more easily pass the membrane, as compared to hydrophobic ones. However, the presence of transport mechanisms allows hydrophobic molecules to enter the cell (Reece, et al., 2011). In cellular permeability studies, an observable cellular change effected by previously identified substance must be utilized in order to clearly determine when and in what conditions the substance penetrated the cell membrane. In this case, the cellular change used was ciliate necrosis and the substance that causes it would be alcohol. This experiment was conducted in order to 1) observe narcosis of T. pyriformis ciliates by alcohol, and 2) discuss the results of ciliate narcosis in terms of membrane permeability. METHOD After preparing propranol and glycerol serial dilutions (propranol: 1.8 M, 1. 5M, 0. 4M, 0. 2M , 0M; glycerol: 2. 8M, 2M, 1. 7M, 1M, 0M) using distilled

Narcosis is a shining example of a psychological thriller done right, and a must play for any horror junkie.” 90% – Gaming Trend “.Well paced and immersive. Every facet of Narcosis feels singular, from the surprising narrative to the well rendered, unique setting. NITROGEN NARCOSIS. A state of euphoria and confusion similar to that of alcohol intoxication which occurs when nitrogen in normal air enters the bloodstream at increased partial pressure (as in deepwater diving). Divers typically begin to experience the effects of nitrogen narcosis at depths of 100 feet( 30m)—called also rapture of the deep. NARCOSIS Walkthrough Part 1 This is Narcosis Walkthrough Gameplay that covers the FULL GAME of Narcosis with No Commentary. Code Provided by Developer http:/. Dalam setting tersebut, game Narcosis hadir sebagai game horor melalui elemen-elemen umum genrenya, dengan tambahan satu elemen unik dan jarang dieksplorasi: kegelapan laut dalam. Dalam bahasa dunia penyelaman, narcosis (narkosis) sendiri berarti berkurangnya kesadaran saat menyelam pada kedalaman lebih dari 30m.

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US3107689A
US3107689AUS7710560AUS3107689AUS 3107689 AUS3107689 AUS 3107689AUS 7710560 AUS7710560 AUS 7710560AUS 3107689 AUS3107689 AUS 3107689A
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valve
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Egidi Emil
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Narcosis
Criticalpatent/DE1212685B/en
CriticalDrager Otto H
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Criticalpatent/US3107689A/en
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  • A61MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
  • A61M16/00Devices for influencing the respiratory system of patients by gas treatment, e.g. mouth-to-mouth respiration; Tracheal tubes
  • A61M16/14Preparation of respiratory gases or vapours by mixing different fluids, one of them being in a liquid phase
  • Y10TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC
  • Y10T137/00Fluid handling
  • Y10T137/87265Dividing into parallel flow paths with recombining
  • Y10T137/87346Including mixing feature

Description

0t.22,1963 P. SCHREIBER ETA'. 3,107,689

NARCOSIS APPARATUS Filed Dec/ 2o 1960 s f e ,b m a mm www +A [email protected] P @d msm United States Patent O 3,107,689 NARCUSS APPARATUS Peter Schreiber and Emi! Egidi, Lnbecir, Germany, assignors to Otto Heinrich Drager, Lbeck, Germany Filed Dec. Zi, 1960, Ser. No. 77,105 Ciaims priority, application Germany July 22, 1960 1 Claim. (Ci. IS7-599,1)

This invention relates to `a narcosis apparatus and, in particular, to a vaporizer type apparatus.

Narcosis apparatuses are Iknown which have an inlet pipe to a vaporizer, an outlet pipe from the vaporizer, and a by-pass pipe connected in parallel with the vaporizer. A control means such as a manually operated valve can be inserted either in the inlet pipe connected to the vaporizer or in the by-pass pipe by reason of which the ratio of the gas owing in the by-pass pipe and the gas lflowing through the vapor-izer can be regulated to obtain the desired concentration of the narcosis agent in the outlet line. A manually operated valve has the disadvantage in that the mixture ratio in the outlet pipe varies with the velocity of the gas llowing through the vaporizer and the by-pass line. Such is not desirable primarily because the anesthetist cannot detect how the gas ratio has been changed without having further infomation. In particular, this disadvantage exists in narcosis devices operated either in a closed or an open respiratory system.

The object of this 4invention is to produce means for maintaining a constant gas mixture ratioregardless of the change in gas Velocity through :either the vaporizer or by-pass line.

In general, this and other objects of the invention are accomplished by using, in a narcosis apparatus having a by-pass line connected in parallel with a vaporizer, a throttle valve in each of the lines, these valves being formed as conical Valves having small conical angles and in which the opening between the valve head and valve seat has a length to width ratio of less than '2 in every open position of the Valve.

The means by which the objects of the invention are obatined are described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

FIGURE 1 is a schematic view of the narcosis apparatus of this invention; vand 2 FIGURE 2 is an enlarged exaggerated view of the control valve of this invention.

As shown in FIGURE 1, gas, such -as air, air mixed vwith cyclopropane, nitrous oxide, or Ithe like, enters through pipe =1 into distributing chamber 2. Throttle valves 3 and 4, respectively, are mounted in pipe 5 leading to vaporizer tank V and by-pass pipe 6 leading from distributing chamber 2 to outlet chamber 7. Pipe 8 joins chamber 7 to vaporizer 9 which is in communication with tank V. The mixed gases are exhausted through outlet pipe 10.

As shown in detail in FIGURE 2, each of the valves 3 and 4 is similar and of the same size and so constructed that the opening 11 between the conical valve head 12 and its complementary seat 14 has a length to wid-th ratio of Iless than 10'2 in every open position of the valve. The conical angle of the valve head is about 4, as markedin the exaggerated View of FIGURE 2.

- Having now'described the means by which the objects of the invention are obtained,

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We claim:

In a narcosis device having a ,gas inlet pipe, a gas outlet pipe, a vaporizer joined between said inlet `and outlet pipes, a vaporizer by-pass pipe extending between said inlet and outlet pipes, the improvement comprising similar conical throttle valves of the same size mounted respectively in said inlet pipe and in said by-pass pipe, and each throttle valve having a length to width valve opening ratio of less than 10-2 and a valve head conical angle of about 4 for maintaining a constant gas mixture ratio in said outlet pipe regardless of the change in gas velocity in either said vaporizer or said by-pass pipe.

References Cited in the tile of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS y 2,169,043 Goehring Aug. 8, 1939 2,173,979 Picut Sept. 26, 1939 2,326,021 Ericsson Aug. 3, 1943 2,711,928 Randa June 28, 1955 2,915,061 Edmondson Dec. l, 1959 2,941,528 Fabian June 2l, 1960

US77105601960-07-221960-12-20Narcosis apparatus Expired - LifetimeUS3107689A (en)

Priority Applications (2)

Application NumberPriority DateFiling DateTitle
DE1966D0050637DE1298239B (en) 1960-07-221966-07-21 Anesthetic Machine with an evaporator connected in parallel bypass

Publications (1)

Publication NumberPublication Date
US7710560Expired - LifetimeUS3107689A (en) 1960-07-221960-12-20Narcosis apparatus

Country Status (7)

CountryLink
CA (1) CA709638A (en)
DK (1) DK115202B (en)
NL (2) NL290540A (en)
US3399673A (en) *1964-06-091968-09-03Cyprane LtdVolatile anaesthetic vaporising apparatus
US4874010A (en) *1988-05-261989-10-17Siemens-Bendix Automotive Electronics LimitedHeater control valve
US6189870B1 (en) *1997-07-012001-02-20Gordon WithallDual port medical oxygen humidifier

Families Citing this family (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication numberPriority datePublication dateAssigneeTitle
GB1237014A (en) *1969-02-051971-06-30Pye LtdImprovements in or relating to medical respirators
DE4105971C2 (en) *1991-02-261999-06-24Draegerwerk AgAnesthetic evaporator
US2169043A (en) *1937-11-081939-08-08Belfield Company HBypass valve
US2326021A (en) *1941-02-261943-08-03Westvaco Chlorine Products CorMethod of brominating wool
US2915061A (en) *1956-12-241959-12-01Cyprane LtdVolatile anaesthetic vaporising apparatus
DE14071C (en) *
US1499433A (en) *1923-05-151924-07-01Manning Maxwell & Moore IncThrottling valve
FR1035459A (en) *1951-04-161953-08-25 Improvements to devices of the kind of oxygen inhalers, including for high-altitude breathing
DE1767649U (en) *1956-12-071958-05-29Holstein & Kappert Maschf Feineinstelldrossel for quantity control of flowing liquids.
DE1861618U (en) *1960-07-221962-11-08Draeger Werk Heinr & Bernh Dra Anesthetic Machine.
  • NLNL126285Dpatent/NL126285C/xxactive
  • NLNL290540Dpatent/NL290540A/xxunknown
  • 1960-07-22DEDE1960D0033834patent/DE1212685B/enactivePending
  • 1961
    • 1966
      • 1967
        • 1967-07-21GBGB3379967Apatent/GB1183738A/ennot_activeExpired
        • US2169043A (en) *1937-11-081939-08-08Belfield Company HBypass valve US2326021A (en) *1941-02-261943-08-03Westvaco Chlorine Products CorMethod of brominating wool US2915061A (en) *1956-12-241959-12-01Cyprane LtdVolatile anaesthetic vaporising apparatus US3399673A (en) *1964-06-091968-09-03Cyprane LtdVolatile anaesthetic vaporising apparatus US4874010A (en) *1988-05-261989-10-17Siemens-Bendix Automotive Electronics LimitedHeater control valve US6189870B1 (en) *1997-07-012001-02-20Gordon WithallDual port medical oxygen humidifier

          Also Published As

          Publication numberPublication date
          GB1183738A (en) 1970-03-11
          NL290540A (en) 1900-01-01
          DE1212685B (en) 1966-03-17
          GB923992A (en) 1963-04-18
          US3651805A (en) Anesthetic vaporizer
          US3338173A (en) Variable fluid proportioner
          CA2272002A1 (en) High concentration no pulse delivery device
          GB1460206A (en) Hydromassage apparatus
          FR2465093A1 (en) Fuel injection valve with preparation in the vacuum tube of an internal combustion engine of the fuel to be injected
          GB1275687A (en) Manual positive pressure breathing device
          ES266032U (en) Flow splitter for dividing a stream of pulverulent material into multiple streams.
          GB1221464A (en) Improvements in and relating to spectroanalyric apparatus
          GB2061745A (en) Anaesthesia machine having proportion limiting control system
          GB1494828A (en) Fluid delivery nozzle
          NO20064777L (en) artificial ventilation
          GB1318997A (en) Disposable carbon dioxide absorber
          US3134513A (en) Insufflator